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As the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin nears its first anniversary, initiators looked back at a year of controversy — and success.

The Memorial to the Murdered Jews in Europe in Berlin was visited by 3.5 million people in its first year, organizers said, but nonetheless it remains controversial. Even today, the response to the site is divided, acknowledged Lea Rosh, the activist who fought for years to establish a German memorial to European Jews killed by the Nazis.

Looking back at the year, Salomon Korn, a member of the memorial’s board of trustees, admitted the memorial was not to everyone’s liking. But, he said, the number of visitors attested to the monument’s powe