A Polish-born American Ivy League historian is facing possible criminal charges in Poland for a recent book describing Polish anti-Semitism and violence against Holocaust survivors following World War II.

Princeton University Prof. Jan T. Gross could be charged with “slandering the Polish nation” for his book Fear: Anti-Semitism in Poland after Auschwitz, whose Polish-language edition came out earlier this month in Poland after first being published in English in the US in 2006.

The potential charges against Gross stem from a controversial Polish law passed two years ago which stipulates that anyone found guilty of accusing the Polish nation of cooperating with Nazi or Communist war crimes can be imprisoned for a maximum of three years in jail.