To our regret, the first few minutes of Professor Bauer’s speech were not taped due to some equipment malfunction that had occurred at the time. Dr. Bauer began his presentation by emphasizing that there were a lot of Jewish rescuers whose heroism saved many Jewish lives. As his first example, Professor Bauer introduced the activities of OSE [Oeuvre de Secours Aux Enfants—Children’s Aid Society] the organization that started in Russia for the health protection of Jews but later transferred its headquarters to Paris and devoted its efforts to the care and rescue of children.

And now, to Professor Bauer’s recorded speech:

As World War II began and France was occupied by the Germans, they [OSE] concentrated on children—the rescue of children.

Now, there was a problem there: because Jews were known, marked. It was very difficult for Jews to be active. There was a very active branch of OSE in what was, at the beginning, non-occupied France—in other words, the southern part of France where the French collaborationist government under Marshal Petain resided in the resort of Vichy. And the OSE branch there was looking for somebody who would do the work, the practical work.

There was a Jewish electrician in one of the cities in the area, with a completely French name: Georges Garel. It is very likely that his grandfather was called Garelsky, or something like that. But he had a French name—nobody knew that he was Jewish. He was recruited in order to set up an organization to take Jewish children out into the countryside and hide them with French peasants. He established something, which was called “Circuit Garel (?)”—a network. He didn’t do it alone—and this was very typical. He did it with the help of a Jesuit priest, Pierre Chayet (?) in Lyon. And with a Jewish convert to Christianity, an abbot—the head of a monastery, with a typical French name: Avraham Glassberg. He never changed his name. He thought of himself as a Jewish Catholic, whatever that means. After the war he helped illegal immigration to Palestine, he organized weapons for the Haganah. But during the war he combined with Chayet and Garel and set up this network. Garel recruited some Jewish girls, but also quite a large number of non-Jewish girls, who scoured the countryside on their bicycles and found peasants who were willing to hide Jewish children. They hid thousands of Jewish children.