November 9, Germany’s Friday the 13th:

What Should We Remember?
by Dr. John G. Rodden

November 9 marks a number of important events in German history. In addition to being the 70th anniversary of Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass that marked the official beginning of the Holocaust, the date also marks the nineteenth anniversary of an event that numerous scholars consider the most significant occurrence in modern world history: the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Many historians say that it rivals the French Revolution in importance. The crumbling of the Wall in November 1989 led to the collapse of communism throughout Eastern Europe and to the ultimate dissolution of the Soviet Union just two years later. Erected in August 1961, the Wall stood for 28 years before it was toppled by the mass protests of East Germans in their