From 1941 to 1944, tens of thousands of Jews were killed in the parts of southern and western Russia under Nazi occupation. While the human cost will never be adequately counted, a new study suggests that the killing of the Jews has led to lower economic growth and more reactionary politics today in the 11 regions where the Holocaust was carried out most intensely. “Cities that experienced the Holocaust most intensely have grown less, and [regions] where the Holocaust had the largest impact have lower GDP per capita and lower average wages today,” according to the study by three U.S. economists. “In addition, these same cities and oblasts exhibit a higher vote share for Communist candidates since the collapse of the Soviet Union.”As units of the German army quickly penetrated deep into Soviet territory in the summer of 1941, they were followed by Einsatzgruppen, SS paramilitary death squads tasked with ensuring control over the conquered territories. By August 1941, they were engaged in the wholesale eradication of many of the Jewish populations.The specific number of slain Jews is contested: Some estimates put the number of Jews killed throughout the Soviet Union at about 800,000. The absolute minimum number of Jews killed on Russian territory over the period was 135,000 — the number the Einsatzgruppen reported in dispatches to Berlin.