What are memorials, and is it important that they occupy public space? Certainly they’re a call to remembrance and reflection, but does a “digital memorial” leave out something important by letting people choose when they observe it?In Munich, an audio map titled Memory Loops by artist and musician Michaela Melian has raised questions like these. The project is a digital memorial to the victims of National Socialism in the Bavarian capital. It draws on archival and audio footage relating to the Holocaust and can be accessed online in both German and English.Melian’s project arose from a juried competition in Munich seeking new forms of remembrance for Nazi victims. The event was meant to address a city monument that had become obscure due to increasing car traffic nearby.”Memory Loops analyzes the most varied historical dimensions by focusing on certain crystallization points in the city of Munich. Using archival material and contemporary witness statements, Melian artistically shapes voice-collages of the highest quality,” noted the jury.But the idea also had detractors, including Munich’s mayor, Christian Ude. He reacted to Melian’s proposal in 2008 by wondering whether “its means can be used to achieve an appropriate memorial.”