In the spring of 1946, Zalman Grinberg and Josef Rosenzaft, representatives of Jewish Holocaust survivors and Displaced Persons (DPs) in the American and British zones of post-World War II Europe, respectively, visited the United States. “Bread alone is not enough,” they poignantly pleaded to American Jews, “Send us poets, writers and singers to show us that Jewish life is not dead.”Reports from others close to the wreckage of post-Holocaust Europe also emphasized that despite the acute need for sustenance and shelter, the cultural hunger of survivors was often even greater than their physical hunger. According to the World Jewish Congress (WJC), survivors recognized that “courage and strength could only be found in the living wellspring of Jewish culture and learning.” As that wellspring had been all but depleted by the anti-Jewish pillage and murderous violence that characterized Hitler’s brutal reign, its revitalization would signify liberation from the crushing weight of fascism, and would satisfy the existential need for culture that exploded in the wake of the mass devastation. Survivors had a voracious appetite for books in particular. Openly visiting a library or purchasing a book, reading and learning what, when, how and with whom one wishes, are emblematic activities of a free and civilized existence, one that European Jews were impatient to re-embark upon after having been deprived of liberty or normality for well over a decade.