The special obligation of Jews to combat genocide and eliminationist politics, even injustice more generally — by now almost a cliché — is linked to Jews having been the victims of the Holocaust and of a long and bitter history of persecution. This call on Jews to urge the defense of the defenseless is pertinent again — sadly, it so often seems pertinent yet again —in the face of the renewal of two related things: The first is the Sudanese government’s eliminationist and exterminationist policies, this time being implemented in or threatening parts of recently independent South Sudan and two contested regions, South Kordofan and Abyei, where Sudanese forces have already killed and expelled from their homes masses of people, with potentially hundreds of thousands more to follow.And the second is the reaction of our government and the world, which is to neglect, stand by and watch as it happens.Led by Omar al-Bashir, the Sudanese government is a racist, political Islamic regime. For two decades it has waged a campaign of extermination first against the non-Muslim South, where the people are mainly non-Arab and Christian or Animist, and then against the people of Darfur in Western Sudan. In both areas, Bashir and his willing executioners have systematically brutalized and maimed, raped, expelled and killed an enormous number of people, with the total estimates being on the order of 2.5 million slaughtered and millions more driven from their home, regions and country. Bashir and his regime can certainly be counted among the worst mass murderers of our time.Where do Jews come in? After the Holocaust, Jews have understandably, even laudably and repeatedly, said “Never again!” And this, rightly, has been a byword of Israel, whose people have been threatened regularly and continue to be threatened by enemies — from the grand mufti, to Nasser, to Ahmadinejad and the Iranian leadership and Hamas — who would like to do it again, and explicitly have said and threatened as much. That this phrase was at first meant by Jews exclusively as self-protection and not as a universally applicable slogan and goal was understandable (if not justifiable), because the Jews had just suffered the most comprehensive large-scale genocide in human history, and also because Jews, no different from most non-Jews in the West, were inattentive regarding the eliminationist and exterminationist assaults that other regimes and other peoples were perpetrating elsewhere, especially against people of color in colonies and the developing world.More recently, though, the phrase “Never again!” has come to be understood as a general principle that should apply to all groups and people. At the same time, it has become clear that the phrase is now hollow, devoid of real meaning. The international community has done little or nothing — take Cambodia, Guatemala, Bosnia, Rwanda and Sudan itself, among many other instances — as mass murderers have systematically slaughtered defenseless children, women and men.And so, it is said — often by Jews — that Jews bear a greater duty to work toward making “Never again!” a meaningful phrase, a greater duty to press political leaders to pursue policies to stay the hands of mass murderers.